Posts Tagged ‘Sticky Markup’

WPFGlue Patterns

November 5, 2009 4 comments

Let’s recapitulate the design requirements for WPFGlue components:

  • You shall not duplicate functionality that is already in the WPF framework.
  • You shall not mess with WPF’s correct function, like keeping objects from being freed and the like evil practices.
  • You shall not require code behind.
  • You shall not demand sub-classing controls.
  • You shall not demand interface implementations from your business objects (unless the interfaces are part of WPF itself), nor common base classes, nor any other construct that commits the developer to a strong coupling between your glue and his code.

The following design patterns have proved suitable for development under these constraints:

Sticky Properties (a.k.a. Attached Properties)

Attached properties can be used to extend the state of any element in WPF. They can be used in XAML, and neither the framework-supplied controls nor the business object model need to know them. So, they are suitable for WPFGlue.

Built-in examples for attached properties are the Canvas.Left and Canvas.Top properties, which the WPF Canvas uses to store the positions of its child elements.

Sticky Behaviours (a.k.a. Attached Behaviours)

Attached behaviours are a special kind of attached properties that register event handlers on the elements they are attached to. The event handlers provide additional functionality to the elements which is triggered through the elements standard events, while the implementation of the event handlers is contained in the class that defines the attached property.

A built-in example for a sticky behaviour is the SpellCheck.IsEnabled property, which adds the functionality of spell checking to controls based on TextBoxBase.

Josh Smith writes about attached behaviours in this article; Attached behaviours are introduced and defined by Nikhil Kothari here.

Sticky CommandBindings

Work like sticky behaviours, with the difference that they don’t handle events, but standard routed commands. Attaching a sticky CommandBinding to a WPF FrameworkElement means that this element will be able to handle the command, without having to change the original implementation of the element. A sticky CommandBinding should add / remove the CommandBindings when the value of an attached property changes.

Pete O’Hanlon gives an almost perfect example of this pattern here. Almost perfect because he uses a class CommandBinding instead of the CommandBindings collection, but this might be justified on his case since he expects the command to be used by many elements per page.

Sticky ViewModels (a.k.a. Mini-ViewModels)

Sticky ViewModels are ViewModels that don’t wrap a business object, but attach themselves to it and expose a specialized, reusable bit of functionality through their own properties and commands. Typically, a sticky ViewModel wouldn’t be the DataContext of a FrameworkElement, but it would be attached to the element as a sticky property and use the FrameworkElement’s DataContext to find the model it is supposed to work on. Controls inside the scope of the FrameworkElement would then bind to properties of the sticky ViewModel in order to benefit from it.

Quite often jobs like this are done through converters (Converters are classes that implement the IValueConverter interface). However, I view this as converter abuse. A converter is not intended for anything but type conversions, translating data between different data types and string presentations. If the intention of the solution is rather to achieve some more complex interaction between the View and the Model, I’d recommend a sticky ViewModel instead. Usually these cases are discovered by feeling the need to pass more information into the conversion routines than is readily available…

While Mini-ViewModel seems to imply that the functionality of such a class would normally be quite limited, I could imagine whole page ViewModels using this technique.

Colin Eberhardt describes the Mini-ViewModel pattern here and gives a nice example.


A ViewModelKit would be a class or set of related classes that can be instantiated and configured as XAML resources, and then be used as ViewModels through referencing the resource.

A built-in example for a ViewModelKit would be the CollectionViewSource class, which can be used to configure views of business object collections.

Sticky Markup (a.k.a. Custom Markup Extensions)

Custom markup extensions are classes derived from System.Windows.Markup.MarkupExtension, which can be used in XAML attributes using the markup extension syntax, like {Binding value}. Writing custom markup extensions is not documented very well in the WPF documentation, and I use them sparingly. They need to be initialized in place, i.e. where they are used in XAML. This limits their “stickiness” to situations where the information they need to do their job is either very simple or can be discovered from the built-in application framework. For example, I found them useful for accessing localized resources, application settings, or the current UI language.